GALANTAMINE CONTENT IN LEUCOJUM AESTIVUM POPULATIONS GROWN IN NORTHWEST ALBANIA
Although chemical synthesis of galantamine is feasible, plants are still the main sources of production for this natural product. Galantamine, a reversible acethylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been used for decades for various medicinal purposes. More recently, it has been successfully applied to the treatment of symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Generally, sources for galantamine isolation are the plants of Amaryllidaceae family, usually from the Leucojum and Narcissus genus. The bulbs of Leucojum aestivum L., known in Albania as “zambaku i kënetës” or “bilbilbardha”, are used for galantamine isolation. Leucojum is included in the IUCN Red List of endangered species. It is known for the diversity of alkaloid fraction, dependent on genotype and geographical position. Our study aims to investigate alkaloid fraction, with a focus on the galantamine content in the bulbs of Leucojum aestivum L. populations, grown near the Buna river banks. The samples were collected during two different periods of vegetation: bloom and fructification. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were the analytical techniques used for the qualitative and quantitative determination. The number of alkaloids detected in different bulb extracts was eight, with galantamine as the dominant compound. The linearity of HPLC method was checked by injecting solutions containing 20 up to 320 µg/ml of galantamine. The average galantamine content was found to be respectively 0.13% and 0.14% for samples M1 and M2, with reference to the dried material.
Demiri M. Përcaktues Bimësh. Tiranë, 1979.
Mediterranean red list aquatic plants. IUCN, June 2010.
Berkov S, Georgieva L, Atanassov A, Codina C. Plant sources of galanthamine: Phytochemical and biotechnological aspects. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2009; 23 (2): 1170-1175.
Takos Adam, Rook Fred. Towards a molecular understanding of the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids in support of their expanding medical use. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2013; 14 (8): 11713-11741.
Stralih Berkov, Lilija Georgieva, Violeta Kondakova, Francesc Viladomat, Carles Godina. The geographic isolation of Leucojum aestivum populations leads to divergation of alkaloid biosynthesis. Biochemical Systematic and Ecology. 2013; 46 (1): 152-61.
Georgieva Lilija, Strahil Berkov, Violeta Kondakova, Jaume Bastida. Alkaloid variability in Leucojum aestivum from wild populations. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung. 2007; 62 (8): 627-635.
Villaroya M, Garcia AG, Marco-Contelles J, Lopez MG. An update on the pharmacology of galanthamine. Expert opinion on investigational drugs. 2007; 16 (12): 1987-1998.
Colovic Mirjana et al. Acethylcholinesterase inhibitors: pharmacology and toxicology. Current Neuropharmacology. 2013; 11 (3): 315-335.
Tayeb Ho. Pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer’s disease: beyond cholinesterase inhibitors. Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 2012; 134 (1): 8-25.
Public assessment report for Neogalzeim XL capsules. Medicines & Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK), April 2016.
Galantamine hydrobromide, marketed as Razadyne, formerly Reminyl. FDA, August 2013.
Ivanov I, Berkov S. Improved HPLC method for determination of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment. 2009; 23(2): 809-813.
Berkov S, Vlladomat F, Codina C, Suarez S. GC-MS of Amaryllidaceous galanthamine-type alkaloids. Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 2012; 47 (8): 1065-1073.
Lubbe Andrea. Quantitative NMR method for analysis of galanthamine in Narcissus bulbs. Phytochemical Analysis. 2013; 21 (1): 66-72.
Azevedo Marquez Lygia. Stability-indicating study of the anti-Alzheimer’s drug galantamine hydrobromide, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. 2011; 55 (1): 85-92.
Sima Z, Damani G. Disa rezultate eksperimentale mbi izolimin dhe identifikimin e alkaloideve të bimës Leucojum aestivum që rritet në vendin tonë. Buletini i UShT-së, Seria Shkencat Natyrore.1967; 2:91-95.
Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis. Ohio 2013: 1067.
Galantamine Tablets, The United States Pharmacopoeia 35/NF 30, Rockville, 2012.
Obreshkova D. Determination of galanthamine and related alkaloids in Nivalin. Comptes Rendus de l’Academie Bullgare des Sciencesi. 2000; 53 (9): 51-54.
Petruczynik A. Comparison of different HPLC systems for analysis of galantamin and licorine in various species of Amaryllidaceae family. Journal of Liquid Chromatography & RelatedTechnologies. 2016; 39, Issue 12.
Van Goietsenoven, Andolf A, Lallemand B. Amaryllidaceae alkaloids belonging to different structural subgroups display activity against apoptosis resistant cancer sell. Journal of Natural Products. 2010; 73: 1223-1227.
Bastida J, Strahil B, Laura Torras. Chemical and biological aspects of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences. Barcelona 2011: 65-100.
Williams Ph, Sorribas A, Howes MJ, Natural products as a source of Alzheimer’s disease drug leads. Natural Product Reports. 2011; 28: 48-77.
Sustainable production of galanthamine by both in vitro and agricultural crops of highly galanthamine - containing plants “SUPROGAL”. Research Project, 7th Framework Programme of the EU. 2014.
- There are currently no refbacks.
Copyright (c) 2016 Rilinda Klosi, Mersin Mersinllari, Eva Gavani
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.