GALANTAMINE CONTENT IN LEUCOJUM AESTIVUM POPULATIONS GROWN IN NORTHWEST ALBANIA

Rilinda Klosi, Mersin Mersinllari, Eva Gavani

Abstract


Although chemical synthesis of galantamine is feasible, plants are still the main sources of production for this natural product. Galantamine, a reversible acethylcholinesterase inhibitor, has been used for decades for various medicinal purposes. More recently, it has been successfully applied to the treatment of symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease. Generally, sources for galantamine isolation are the plants of Amaryllidaceae family, usually from the Leucojum and Narcissus genus. The bulbs of Leucojum aestivum L., known in Albania as “zambaku i kënetës” or “bilbilbardha”, are used for galantamine isolation. Leucojum is included in the IUCN Red List of endangered species. It is known for the diversity of alkaloid fraction, dependent on genotype and geographical position. Our study aims to investigate alkaloid fraction, with a focus on the galantamine content in the bulbs of Leucojum aestivum L. populations, grown near the Buna river banks. The samples were collected during two different periods of vegetation: bloom and fructification. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography were the analytical techniques used for the qualitative and quantitative determination. The number of alkaloids detected in different bulb extracts was eight, with galantamine as the dominant compound. The linearity of HPLC method was checked by injecting solutions containing 20 up to 320 µg/ml of galantamine. The average galantamine content was found to be respectively 0.13% and 0.14% for samples M1 and M2, with reference to the dried material.


Keywords


Galantamine, Extraction, HPLC

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